During the Hughes, Stone, and Vinson Courts (1930–1953), the court gained its own accommodation in 1935 and changed its interpretation of the Constitution in order to facilitate Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal (West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish, Wickard v. Filburn), giving a broader reading to the powers of the Federal Government.
The Warren Court (1953–1969) made many rulings, sometimes celebrated, sometimes controversial, expanding the application of the Constitution to civil liberties, leading a renaissance in substantive due process. It held segregation in public schools unconstitutional (Brown v. Board of Education); that the Constitution protects a general right to privacy (Griswold v. Connecticut); that public schools cannot have official prayer (Engel v. Vitale) or mandatory Bible readings (Abington School District v. Schempp); that many guarantees of the Bill of Rights apply to the states (e.g., Mapp v. Ohio, Miranda v. Arizona); found an equal protection clause is contained in the Fifth Amendment (Bolling v. Sharpe); and that the Constitution grants the right to a court-appointed attorney for those unable to afford one (Gideon v. Wainwright).
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