The revolution did not immediately result in a republican government; instead, it set up a weak provisional central government over a politically fragmented country. Reactionaries briefly and abortively restored the monarchy twice, leading to a period of military rule. Though the revolution concluded on February 12, 1912, when the Republic of China formally replaced the Qing Dynasty, internal conflict persisted. The nation endured a failed Second Revolution, a Warlord Era and the Chinese Civil War before the Communists took control on October 1, 1949.
Discussions of the issues surrounding the Xinhai Revolution are often politically charged, as the events that followed played a role in the histories of both the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China. Nevertheless, the Xinhai Revolution was the first attempt to establish a Republic in China that managed to successfully oust the previous government.
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